INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES.
BY JOHN BECKMANN,
PUBLIC PROFESSOR OF ECONOMY IN THE UNIVERSITY OF
TRANSLATED FROM THE GERMAN,
BY WILLIAM JOHNSTON.
CAREFULLY CORRECTED, AND ENLARGED BY THE ADDITION OF SEVERAL
IN FOUR VOLUMES.
PRINTED FOR LONGMAN, HURST, REES, ORME, AND BROWN ;
BALDWIN, CRADOCK, AND JOY ; R. PRIESTLEY; R. SCHOLEY;
T. HAMILTON; W. OTUIDGE ; J. WALKER; R. FENNER; J,
BELL; J. BOOKER; E. EDWARDS; AND J. HARDING.
Co rss ; '
THE THIRD VOLUME.
Chemical names of metals . . 50
Zinc * 67
Look- censors . . * 93
Exclusive privilege for printing hooks 109
Catalogues of hooks 118
Aurum fulminans . . . 128
Glass- cutting. Etching on glass 207
Jugglers * • 264
Camel . . ...,315
Artificial ice. Cooling liquors 322
Lighting of streets 376
Bills of exchange
Seignette y s salt. Sal polychrest 447
Wild chesnut-tree 4Q4
Almanacks. Court calendar 468
Turkish paper. Marbled paper 500
Leather snuff boxes 507
Price currents 523
Index to the authors and books quoted in the Third
Index to the most remarkable things mentioned in the
Third Volume . 537
Some of the flowers introduced into our gardens,
and now cultivated either on account of their
beauty or the pleasantness of their smell, have
been procured from plants which grew wild, and
which have been changed, or, according to the
opinion of florists, improved, by the art of the gar-
dener. The greater part of them however came
originally from distant countries, where they grow,
in as great perfection as ours, without the assist-
ance of man. Though we often find mention of
flowers in the works of the Greeks and the Ro-
mans, it appears that they were contented with
those which grew in their own neighbourhood. I
do not remember to have read that they ever took
the trouble to form gardens for the particular pur-
pose of rearing in them foreign flowers or plants.
2 HISTORY OF INVENTIONS.
But even supposing that I may be mistaken, for I
do not pretend to have examined this subject
very minutely, I think I may with great pro-
bability venture to assert, that the modern taste
for flowers came from Persia to Constantinople,
and was imported thence to Europe, for the first
time, in the sixteenth century. At any rate, wo
find that the greater part of the productions of
our flower-gardens were conveyed to us by that
channel. Ciusius and his friends, in particular,
contributed very much to excite this taste ; and
the new plants brought from both the Indies by
the travellers who then continued still more fre-
quently to visit these countries, tended to in-
crease it. That period also produced some skilful
gardeners, who carried on a considerable trade
with the roots and seeds of flowers; and these
likewise assisted to render it more general.
Among these were John and Vespasian Robin,
gardeners to Henry IV of France, * and Emanuel
Sweert, gardener to the emperor Rodolphus II,f
from whom the botanists of that time procured
many rarities, as appears from different passages
of their works. As this taste for flowers prevails
more at present than at any former period, a
short history of some of the objects of it may
not be disagreeable, perhaps, to many of my
* See Haller’s Bibliotheca bo tap. i. p. 398 .
f Ibid. p. 411.